The factors that lead to this trade's growth are plain to see. Acceptance of low level economic crimes and weak enforcement of laws are clear reasons. China is a large part of the problem but it is improving. Developed markets often score well due to their stronger legal environments. But Singapore scores badly due to its laissez fair attitude to transhipment, worth billions - implying that Singapore earns a great deal of money transhipping illicit goods. Emerging markets with weak legal environments are havens for illicit trade naturally. This applies especially to Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar but Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam are only slightly above the bottom 3. Only 9 of 17 countries studied have proper Customs recordal system in place for IP - 20 years after the WTO TRIPS agreement too effect for most countries!