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IPR protection in Indonesia

Based on a European (specifically Dutch) legal system, Indonesia is a constitutional system. The DPR or Parliament passes laws, then interpretations, regulations and ministerial decrees follow. WTO entry led to modernised patent, trademark and copyright laws. Civil courts decide cases, but decisions are not binding. Specifically IP cases go to the Commercial Court. The police are supposed to enforce criminal laws. Customs are supposed to handle IP border protection. The Directorate General of IP registers trademarks, designs and patents, and very occasionally copyrights, plant varieties or semiconductor layouts.